248 HISTORY OF WESTERN EDUCATION " expression 'J of the Divine Being it reaches out after a knowledge of the world, just as it yearns for the virtue and the piety which bring it to a knowledge of self and a knowledge of God. And the universe which seems at first to stand over against man is not an alien mode of being but is akin to him. " All things have been harmoniously arranged by God in such a manner that the higher (in the scale of existence) can be represented by the lower, the invisible by the visible,"* so that even in its first dealings with material facts the soul is in touch with the divine order. In translating this view of man's nature into psychological terms Comenius follows the Italian philosophers into a crude sensationalism. *' Since there is nothing in the understanding whklLJia$_xiQjL£r^^ he says, quoting the familiar rendering of a doctrine which goes back to Aristotle, " the mind derives the material for all its thoughts from sense.''f The implication is that the senses function before the understanding, which suggests that development takes the form of the successive activities of different faculties of mind. As a matter of fact, this doctrine is explicitly stated by Comenius in the Great Didactic when he is attempting to show how learning and teaching may be made easier. " The right order of instruction is followed," he says, " if boys be made to exercise, first the senses (for this is easiest), then the memory, next the understanding, and finally the judgment. For knowledge begins from sense, and passes into memory through imagination; then the understanding of universals is reached by induction from particulars ; and finally comes judgment on the facts of understanding, leading to the establishment of knowledge." J Though Comenius was not philosopher enough to know it, the mystical and the sensationalist strains of thought which he had adopted from the Italian thinkers were incompatible. The one led to the view that the spiritual reality of the universe is within the grasp of the soul from the first, and only awaits experience to reveal itself in its true character. The other implied that the soul begins with the material and gradually ascends to the spiritual. But in the application of these diverse principles to educational practice Comenius succeeded to a large extent in evading the contradiction. It is true that there are occasional inconsistencies in his precepts on method. In one passage he insists that * Keatinge, p. 187. t Keatinge, p. 106. % Keatinge, p. 135.